Fires are classified in four groups A, B, C, and D
- Class A fires – are fires involving organic solids like paper, wood, etc
- Class B fires – are fires involving flammable Liquids.
- Class C fires – are fires involving flammable Gasses
- Class D fires - are fires involving Metals
Electrical fires are not included, as they can fall into any of the classifications. However if you use a standard water extinguisher you must isolate the electric supply first as you could be electrocuted. Water based extinguishers such as foam and water mist are safe for use on electrical fires if they have been tested to 35000V (also written 35kV) and a safety distance of 1m is adhered to. In addition it must be remembered that certain electrical apparatus maintain a lethal charge for some time after they have been switched off. What should you do if you discover a fire? You must get everyone out as quickly as possible and call the fire brigade. However you may discover a fire in its very early stages and successfully use a fire extinguisher. The first thing that you should remember, however, is that fire spreads very quickly. Even a small, contained fire can quickly spread, producing smoke and fumes which can kill in seconds. If you are in any doubt do not tackle the fire, no matter how small. You can put yourself at risk by fighting the fire. If in doubt, get out, call the Fire Service out and stay out.
New F Class for fire extinguishers
The British Standards Institution (BSI) published a standard which introduced a new fire classification for cooking oil and fat fires, Class F, which was BS 7937 and now has been replaced by BS EN 3-7 2004 + A1 : 2007 Characteristics, performance requirements and test methods. Class F fires react violently if water is poured onto them, as the water expands rapidly and carries the burning oil into the room. Equally, powder, foam and CO2 carry the risk of spreading the burning oil. The only safe extinguishers for class F fires are wet chemical, ‘dry’ water mist and of course fire blankets.
Colour coding of Extinguishers
The type of extinguisher is identified by a colour coding as indicated below. The old fire extinguishers standard required the whole of the body of the extinguisher to be painted the appropriate colour code. You will find these extinguishers in many premises and these are still legal , you do not need to change them unless the extinguisher is defective and needs to be replaced. New extinguishers are manufactured to the new standard BS EN 3.
- Water extinguishers are coloured signal red.
- Other extinguishers will be predominantly signal red with a label, band or circle covering at least 5% of the surface area of the extinguisher in a second colour indicating the contents of the extinguisher.
Fire extinguishers colour-coded green are vapourising liquids (Halons) and have been illegal, with some exceptions like aircraft and the military, since the end of 2003 as the result of the Montreal protocol. They need to be disposed of legally, for more information go to Phasing out Halons in portable fire extinguishers.
The indicating colour always indicates the type of extinguisher medium.
|Type||Old Code||BS EN 3 Colour Code||Fire Class|
|Water||Signal Red||Signal Red||A|
|Foam||Cream||Red with a cream panel above the operating instructions||A B|
|Dry Powder||French Blue||Red with a blue panel above the operating instructions||A, B, C|
|Carbon Dioxide||Black||Red with a black panel above the operating instructions|
|Halon||Emerald Green||No longer produced – illegal in the UK||A|
|Wet Chemical||Not in use||Red with a yellow panel above the operating instructions||A, F|
|Specialist Powder||French Blue||Red with a blue panel above the operating instructions||D|
Not using the above colour coding means the fire extinguisher does not conform to the British standard and therefore cannot display the Kite mark. If a specific piece of legislation requires them to conform to the British Standard, then they would be illegal. In the case of the The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 this order does not require portable fire extinguishers to conform to the British Standard.
Therefore they are legal in premises covered by this order, however the DCLG guidance on the RR(FS)O does recommend they should conform to the British Standards which leaves the Responsible Person in a dilemma.
All extinguishers capable of extinguishing class A, B or F fires carry a Fire Rating which is indicated by a number and letter. (13A, 55B) The number is the size of fire it can extinguish under test conditions, the larger the number, the larger the fire it can extinguish. The letter indicates the fire classification as above. Class C, D and the electrical symbol do not carry a rating.
All extinguishers capable of extinguishing class F fires have a rating based on 4 benchmark tests using 5, 15, 25 and 75 litres of sunflower oil. The oil is heated to auto-ignition and allowed to pre burn for 2 minutes. The fire is then extinguished and no re-ignition shall occur within 10 minutes of extinguishing the fire.
For a fuller explanation, go to Portable Fire Extinguisher Guide and for a full explanation check out the latest edition of BS EN 3-7
Allocation and Siting of Extinguishers
For the home a fire blanket and a small wet chemical extinguisher or dry water mist extinguisher in the kitchen would be considered satisfactory for most situations. A water mist extinguisher, with its broad ability across all most fire risks is also suitable for the rest of the house. Remember to only tackle small fires, if in doubt, get out and always call the fire service out.
Commercial organisations need to be more professional by conducting a survey to ascertain the number and type of extinguishers that are required and a more substantial fire extinguishing capability will be required. The ratings of the extinguishers should be used to calculate the number and type of extinguishers required. Only BAFE approved companies should be used as this will ensure an installation and maintenance to the highest standard.
Extinguishers should normally be sited on escape routes on all floors at ‘fire points’. They should be fixed in a location where the extinguisher can be reached quickly. The best place is near a door leading to a place of safety, on an escape route or adjacent to a specific risk. They should be fixed where they can be easily seen, fixing them inside cupboards or behind doors will only waste valuable time if a fire breaks out. Do not place them over cookers or heaters or in places of extreme temperatures, hot or cold.
The following factors should also be considered when siting fire extinguishers:
- Extinguishers should be fixed at an elevated height, so that the carrying handle is 1m from the floor for heavier units (heavier than 4kg) and 1.5m for smaller units. For special risks they should be fitted adjacent to the risk but not too close to prevent use in the event of fire occurring.
- They should be near the door, in shallow recesses and away from extremes of temperature.
- Extinguishers should be within reasonable distance from any fire risk:
- Class A: 30m
- Class B: 10m
- Class C: 30m
- Class D: case-by-case basis, by expert advice
- Class F: 10m
- If you have to travel through doorways, the maximum travel distances need to be reduced.
- The method of operation should be similar for all extinguishers, where possible.
- The occupiers should be capable of handling all the types and sizes recommended.
- Where different types of extinguishers for different risk types are sited together they must be properly labelled to prevent confusion.
- Extinguishers should be fitted with suitable jet or spray nozzles or flexible hoses to suit the risk involved.
Additional References can be found in BS 5306 Part 8.
Extinguishers in commercial or public buildings should be visually inspected monthly for damage and must be serviced to BS 5306-3:2009 once a year. Water, foam and powder extinguishers have to be discharged and refilled every five years. CO2 extinguishers must be refurbished after ten years. One exception, however, are the kitemarked P50 maintenance-free extinguishers which only need a refurbish after ten years and do not require maintenance within the ten years (other than the monthly visual inspection and a recorded yearly visual inspection by the owners).
In general, the manufacturer’s instructions will tell you what you need to do to keep your extinguisher in good working order. After an extinguisher has been used, even if only partially, it must be recharged according to the manufacturer’s instructions. See this guide about fire extinguisher maintenance for further details.
For the yearly maintenance you should use a company registered by the British Approvals for Fire Equipment (BAFE). BAFE is a Government recognised national organisation. You can get details of approved products and advice from:
British Approvals for Fire Equipment,
48a Eden Street,
Kingston upon Thames,
Surrey, KT1 1EE
(Tel: 0181 541 1950).
Note. They can also supply a list of companies approved by them to service portable fire extinguishers.
BS 5306-3:2009 and most extinguisher manufacturers recommend yearly servicing by an engineer and the refilling of foam, water and powder extinguishers every five years. One exception is Britannia with their P50 self-maintenance extinguishers which are guaranteed for ten years and which do not require maintenance over the ten year period. In actual fact, these extinguishers loose their warranty if any attempt is made to modify the unit (e.g. refilling etc). They still require a recorded annual visual inspection by the owners, though. The visual inspection consists of checking the pressure gauges, checking the extinguisher for damage and checking the manufacture date of the extinguisher and recording the result in a fire safety logbook and on the extinguisher. Insurances accept these extinguishers but should be notified of the change in the maintenance procedure once you have installed P50 extinguishers.
Purchasing Portable Fire Extinguishers
When purchasing fire extinguishers always ensure they meet the requirements of the appropriate British Standard. Look for the kitemark, LPCB mark or Apragaz mark to prove correct certification. The BAFE mark is voluntary but offers additional assurance of quality. If the extinguishers are for commercial or public buildings they will need to be commissioned AFTER the delivery. Be careful, as some internet companies offer certification prior to delivery, which is not acceptable, as extinguishers could get damaged in transit and you will have no certification of correct fire fighting provision unless an engineer has seen your premises.
If you require any further information about the type of fire extinguishers you should buy, ask your local fire brigade. They will be glad to help you and their expert advice is free of charge. They will also be able to provide you with general fire safety advice.
Surfing the internet will produce many suppliers but always use a company that stocks extinguishers meeting the appropriate British Standard and that these companies offer ON SITE commissioning (certification) or installation carried out by an engineer at your site.
Which Portable Fire Extinguishers to Use
Fires involving freely
burning materials. For example wood, paper, textiles and other
Fires involving flammable
liquids. For example petrol and spirits. NOT ALCOHOL OR COOKING
Fires involving flammable
gasses. For example propane and butane.
Fires involving flammable
metals. For example magnesium and lithium.
Fires involving electrical
equipment. For example photocopiers, fax machines and computers.
Fires involving cooking
oil and fat. For example olive oil, maize oil, lard and butter.
|ABC Dry Powder|
Before you tackle a fire
Many people put out small fires quite safely. However, some people die or are injured by tackling a fire which is beyond their capabilities. Here is a simple fire code to help you decide whether to put out or get out.
- Only tackle a fire in its very early stages.
- Always put your own and other peoples safety first.
- On discovering the fire, immediately raise an alarm
- Make sure you can escape if you need to and never let a fire block your exit.
- Fire extinguishers are only for fighting a fire in its very early stages. Never tackle a fire if it is starting to spread or has spread to other items in the room or if the room is filling with smoke. Around 70% of fire deaths are caused by people being overcome by smoke and fumes.
- If you cannot put out the fire or if the extinguisher becomes empty, get out and get everyone else out of the building immediately, closing all doors behind you as you go. Then ensure the fire brigade has been called.
Fire Industries Association is a trade association formed by the merger of two leading associations within the fire protection industry – FETA (Fire Extinguishing Trades Association established in 1916), the trade association of companies responsible for the manufacture and maintenance of portable fire-fighting equipment and BFPSA (British Fire Protection Systems Association established in 1966), the coordinating body for the UK fire systems industry.
The two associations have long shared the common interest of upholding and enhancing the professional status of the UK fire industry. http://www.fia.uk.com/
British Approval for Fire Equipment is an organisation that ensures and lays down the standards for fire equipment in the UK. http://www.bafe.org.uk/
For more information and links to British Standards go to British Standards Specifications
|BS EN 3-10:2009||Provisions for the attestation of conformity of portable fire extinguishers in accordance with EN 3 Part 1 to Part 5. Amendment 1|
|BS EN 3-7 2004 + A1 : 2007||Characteristics, performance requirements and test methods|
|BS EN 3-8:2006||Additional requirements to EN 3-7 for the construction, resistance to pressure and mechanical tests for extinguishers with a maximum allowable pressure equal to or lower than 30 bar|
|BS 7863:2009||Recommendations for colour coding to indicate the extinguishing media contained in portable fire extinguishers|
Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises
|BS 5306-0:1986||Guide for the selection of installed systems and other fire equipment|
|BS 5306-1:2006||Hose reels and foam inlets|
|BS 5306-2:1990||Specification for sprinkler systems|
|BS 5306-3:2009||Commissioning and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers.|
|BS 5306-4:2001||Specification for carbon dioxide systems|
|BS 5306-5.1:1992||Halon systems. Specification for halon 1301 total flooding systems|
|BS 5306-5.2:1984||Halon systems. Halon 1211 total flooding systems|
|BS EN 13565-2:2009||Foam systems.|
|BS 5306-8:2012||Code of practice for Selection and installation of portable fire extinguishers.|